of extremist supporters led to an increase in spectators' violence in general. Explanations of warfare that are based on mating success or commitment fail to explain the extreme levels of cruelty that are often found in human wars yet not among non-human species. Some psychologists believe that aggressive displays are not due to biological compulsions but are due to environmental changes. One evolutionary explanation of group displays of aggression believes that humans display aggression in groups in order to gain access to resources; likely resources gained through group displays of aggression include land, women and money. This idea has been disputed, as studies have found that a larger crowd does not give the team an advantage. Our understanding of displays of warfare is largely limited to males. Due to the restrictions of modern society, we can no longer engage in tribal warfare, but the biological need for aggression still stands. (916 marks social transitions and the need for conformity have been stated as the fundamental cause of American lynchings because of the fear of the black people, and a lynch law was a means of social control. Furthermore the evolutionary explanation of group displays of aggression states that in modern society, the winning teams hold high status, therefore will have access to more resources and makes the members more attractive mates. There are real-world applications of research into the link between sports and xenophobia. For example, the Dahomey Amazons were an all-female army who conquered much of North-West Africa between the 17th and 19th centuries.
Group Displays in Humans.
Discuss evolutionary explanations of group display in humans,.g.
(8 marks 16 marks) You should outline and evaluate relevant explanations, such as xenophobia and territoriality in sports, and mate competition and group commitment in warfare.
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In an evolutionary sense, individuals would want to be a part of the best tribe for the best chances of survival. However, Clarks study was culturally biased as Brazil is a collectivist culture and therefore cannot be applied to individualistic societies. The acquisition of these resources is important for the survival of a group and to ensure the continued existence of future generations in terms of reproduction. Many psychologists believe that natural selection has favoured the genes which cause humans to be altruistic towards members of their own group but intolerant towards outsiders. When men compete with each other for mates, and those who do well in battle gain access to female mate. Tajfel proposed that the groups.g sporting teams which people belonged to were an important source of pride and self-esteem. Aggressive displays when defending territory may have been adaptive for our ancestors because they allowed groups to defend valuable resources associated with their territory. Outline and Evaluate Explanations of Group Displays in Humans. You should outline and evaluate relevant essay on my favourite sport cricket in hindi explanations, such as xenophobia and territoriality in sports, and mate competition and group commitment in warfare. Group displays of aggression may occur due to xenophobia - also known as the threat of the unknown. Dawkins (1976) believes that we can override biology with free will, that we can use our intelligence to separate ourselves from our ancestors. However, evolutionary explanations struggle to explain this, as women would have considerably less to gain from fighting, and more to lose (in terms of their reproductive capacity).