he makes concerning events and people in the past, and also. At its inception, we were concerned with various issues, especially the need to explain the conduct of geographers faced with changes which had taken place in geography elsewhere and which were just then reaching Spain. Those that lead to the diffusion and imposition of what Kuhn would call a new paradigm, force the continual rewriting of history, both so as to justify and support of the change and also to prevent and defend the status quo, but in any case. More and more it is turning into a collective and increasingly diversified task, the same as has happened -earlier or at the same time- to other Spanish researchers; the historians of medicine, of physics and of biology have opened new fields and introduced new enriching. Manuel de Lardizabal Revista d'Historia Modema, Barcelona, 6 1986 pp 165-180. The synergistic relationship between health professionals and the military especially flourished during the most massive conflict of all: World War. The goals and functions of these have recently received considerable attention, both because of the influence that such histories have had on the legitimacy and self-image of the disciplines and also because of the adaptability that they have shown when faced with the conceptual and. Like Langdon Winner, who speaks of Levitt and Gross as "malicious Nelkin appears to think that when dogs bite back after being kicked in the face they ought to be disposed of as vicious. A summary of this study has been published under the same tittle as a paper at the Anais do 2 Congresso Latino-Americano de Historia da Ciencia e da Tecnologia,30 de Junho a 4 de julho,1988, Sao Paulo, Nova Stella, 1989,. A patriotic belief in activist democracy became fused with faith in the power of science and technology. In 1910 Thomas Edison prophesied that the motion picture would "wipe out narrow-minded prejudices which are founded on ignorance,.create a feeling of sympathy and a desire to help the down-trodden people of the earth, ve new ideals to be followed." Edison clearly had an inventor's.
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Congreso Intemacional de las Américas,1988. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, in 1941, Darryl. Revista de la Sociedad Espanola de Historia de las Ciencias y de las Técnicas, Zaragoza, Vol 11,. Film was almost universally regarded as an exemplary technology of modernity, a medium destined to transform society. In these cases, one attempts to justify the identity, the validity and, on occasions, the scientific nature of the discipline, all of which is essential to achieve recognition within an academic structure competing for limited resources. Conclusion The histories of the scientific disciplines, including the history of geography, had at first -and to some extent still have- the functions of legitimacy and socialization. Shortly afterwards, Kuhn's ideas were applied directly to geography in order to justify the change of paradigm, and they became standard in the discipline (47). Provided that the government of Canada and Quebec want to improve the quality of life for its people and encourage the growth of scientific discoveries, they should invest in scientific research that will continue. Meanwhile, the issues of the theoretical foundations of the discipline in relation to other scientific fields led to a study of figures in the past, such as Varenius, who had reflected on the contents and methods of this science. Among other things, Levitt and Gross object to the notion that feminist science employs a different "reason" from male science. Every type is important. Are by no means always more accurate and effective than modern scientific knowledge, but sometimes they are." And sometimes professors of philosophy are hard to distinguish from idiots (but not always)!