longer determine the validity of a given instance of speaking for others simply by asking whether or not the speaker has done sufficient research to justify her claims. Given that the context of hearers is partially determinant, the speaker is not the master or mistress of the situation. Such a reductionist theory might, for example, reduce evaluation to a political assessment of the speaker's location where that location is seen as an insurmountable essence that fixes one, as if one's feet are superglued to a spot on the sidewalk. A reverential crowd of tens of thousands gathered there at.m., with long lines waiting to enter Pine Trails Park, located about a mile from Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. The phrase "bears on" here should indicate some variable amount of influence short of determination or fixing. The second claim holds that not only is location epistemically salient, but certain privileged locations are discursively dangerous. My "Cultural Feminism versus Post-Structuralism: The Identity Crisis in Feminist Theory" signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society.3 (Spring 1988 405-36. But Trebilcot's position, as well as a more general retreat position, presumes an ontological configuration of the discursive context that simply does not obtain. For example, can a white woman speak for all women simply by virtue of being a woman?
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The discursive style in which some European post-structuralists have made the claim that all writing is political marks it as important and likely to be true for a frankenstein foreshadowing essay certain (powerful) milieu; whereas the style in which African-American writers made the same claim marked their speech. In the end Spivak prefers a "speaking to in which the intellectual neither abnegates his or her discursive role nor presumes an authenticity of the oppressed, but still allows for the possibility that the oppressed will produce a "countersentence" that can then suggest a new. Spaces in which it may seem as if it is impossible to engage in dialogic encounters need to be transformed in order to do so, such as classrooms, hospitals, workplaces, welfare agencies, universities, institutions for international development and aid, and governments. And if so, what is the best way to do this-to keep silent or to deconstruct my own discourse? This was part of the argument made against Anne Cameron's speaking for Native women: Cameron's intentions were never in question, but the effects of her writing were argued to be harmful to the needs of Native authors because it is Cameron rather than they who.
Gina was a smart kid with a kind heart, he said. That is, they will obtain for a very specific location and cannot be taken as universal. Why might one advocate such a partial retreat?