into informal sanctions, such as loss of reputation. Simply because pmscs claim that they are legitimate businesses, it does not mean that they are always acting according to moral, legal or political restraints: mpri for instance despite its policy against the provision of weapons to its contractors, has been repeatedly accused of engaging. One of the most controversial issues emerges from the alleged relationship between these pmscs and a number of natural resources extraction companies: OBrien dedicates a whole chapter to describe thoroughly these links17 and both Musah and Fayemis18critics often revolve around this issue. Furthermore, it will be possible to combine together all these fragments, benefitting from their partial contribution. Founded by the same entrepreneur a former Lieutenant-Colonel in the Scots Guards, Tim Spicer these two corporations and their different policies on combat services represent the most apt example to demonstrate the influence of the immoral norm on want-to-be-legitimate security corporations. For this methodological approach, the Internet has revealed itself as a mine of information on companies policies and public statements, very often unexplored or unmentioned by researchers and experts in this field.
Costs/benefit; accountability of decisions; democratic decision-making he enlarges the spectra of possible points-of-view, therefore impoverishing the depth of the overall analysis. Furthermore, even the pmscs that have been presented cannot be considered legitimate tout court. As Brooks claims: Such laws would end the uncertainty and allow companies to focus theirs effort on military services that would thus be officially legitimate. The Papua New Guinea (PNG) Affair79 represents a good example to demonstrate the significance and magnitude of the political restraints that pmscs have to take face in order to legitimize politically their business, avoiding dangerous collision with potential clients. Zarate, The Emergence of a New Dog of War,.153 126 Brooks, Messiah or Mercenaries,. On the contrary, mercenaries and mercenary organizations were characterized by the lack of all these features. (eds.) Mercenaries: An African Security Dilemma, London, Pluto, (2000) 17 OBrien, Kevin, Private Military Companies and African Security in Musah, Abdel- Fatau and Fayemy, Kayode. In fact, Aegis is eager to see the private security industry regulated by government. 113 whose reputation has been attacked. Specifically, the normative element of constitutionality as such is inapplicable to pmscs, as it refers to what is considered to be politically appropriate in the conducts of States. From a theoretical perspective, the analysis will follow the tripartite structure outlined in the precedent chapter. Hampson as"d by Percy in Mercenaries,.171 77 Kwakwa, The Current Status of Mercenaries in Armed Conflict: Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, Vol.14 (1990.71 79 For a detailed description of the above-mentioned PNG Affair, see Singer, Corporate Warriors,.